Metropolitan Museum of Art

Babylon: Unearthing Impact

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Babylon: Myth and Reality (Nov 13, 2008-Mar 15, 2009) is an exhibition that changed my life – even though I had never seen it.

It was my father who visited this British Museum exhibition and brought home the catalogue (“the Babylon book”). Shortly after this, in 2010, I volunteered to teach the Book of Daniel to a class of thirty-seven 8th graders in Jerusalem, and where I was teaching as an undergraduate student-teacher. Using the resources I learned about through this book, I inspired these adolescents who were previously intimidated by the mostly-Aramaic book. This experience had made the book approachable to them, and the importance of archaeology for me – tangible.

At the end of the year, we celebrated with Nebuchadnezzar’s Ishtar Gates of Babylon – on a cake designed by yours truly.  

End-of-year celebration, after learning the Book of Daniel. Jerusalem, 2010

The next part of this story was completely unexpected. Since those student-teacher days, I’ve been teaching professionally in the US for six years, and often guiding tours near the two real Ishtar Gate lions on display at the Met. Academically I’ve gone back to school, completing an M.Ed in Jewish Education at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, and currently studying for an MA in Ancient Jewish History at Bernard Revel Graduate School (Yeshiva University). It is in this context that I had the distinct pleasure of seeing Dr. Michael Seymour, co-author of the Babylon book.

Dr. Seymour moderated a symposium for The World Between Empires Met exhibition (Mar 18-Jun 23, 2019). This spectacular exhibition shows the complexities of life, religion, commerce and identity in the region between Roman and Parthian Empires; the two superpowers of the late Second Temple period to the 3rd century CE.

This was only possible thanks to my professor at Revel, Steven Fine, inviting students to the symposium.

During that symposium, I was reminded of how my journey began 9 years ago. But it was only later, as I was guiding a private tour in the World Between Empires, that I recognized Dr. Seymour as he spoke to a group, and introduced myself. We kept in touch, met again when I was guiding students, and finally sat down for an early Friday morning coffee at the museum.

We sat and told lots of stories about shared interests. It was a fascinating conversation, and hopefully just the first of many.

Dr. Seymour is an assistant curator in the Met since 2011, when he began work on the exhibition Assyria to Iberia at the Dawn of the Classical Age (Sep 22, 2014-Jan 4, 2015). This was the very first exhibition I saw, on my very first Met visit.

I had brought along my copies of the Babylon and World Between Empires books, which are now autographed in a place of honor on my bookshelf.

Signing the Babylon Book

We never know who we will touch and how we will make an impact. Whether it’s something we say, an act of kindness that we do, or a book that we write.

The impact that Dr. Seymour had on my life in turn had an impact on my students’ learning, on my career path, and down the line – on countless other lives which were inspired and invigorated because of some old rocks someone dug out of the dirt in Ancient Babylon!  

With Dr. Seymour at the Met, holding my autographed Babylon book

The Age of Empires Strikes Back

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Returning customers, especially for the same tour, is very encouraging. Both pictures are of today’s group at the Metropolitan Museum.

The right-hand picture is of returning customers from last year. Mrs. Gitta Neufeld, head of educational development at Allegra Franco School of Educational Leadership (second from right) attended my tour in June 2017, and hired me as a teacher at Allegra Franco. I am looking forward to beginning my second year teaching there.

Take it from her:

(amidst the hustle and bustle of the Met’s closing hours – this is being cleaned up slightly, but bear with us for 22 seconds!)


Parasha Pearls for Shabbat Hagadol

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This week, Parashat Tzav and the Shabbat before Pesach, is called שבת הגדול – the “Great” or “Grand” Sabbath.

Why is it called Shabbat Hagadol?

School children learn the story of how the Hebrews tied the pascal lamb to the bedpost on the sabbath before the very first Passover in Egypt. But this was a risky thing to do, as  the Egyptians deified the lamb. However, G-d protected us and it was a grand display of His benevolence that not a single Egyptian tried to hurt us for holding their gods at bay.

But come now, seriously?

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Student proudly demonstrates an artifact he found in relation to Pesach and Shabbat haGadol

On a Museum tour with ninth graders from Magen David Yeshivah High School, which I lead in early March, a student discovered a Ptolemaic period deity in the form of a ram – representing the Egyptian god Amun-Re, often represented in that form.

This student will never forget that!

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Ram headed sphinx of the god Amun-Re at Karnak. From:

Summer 2017

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Summer Public Tanach Tours are over

Public tours will resume shortly, and a schedule will be posted soon.

It has been a long summer, with nearly 20 Tanach and Jewish History tours running at the Met. The summer Public Tanach Tour series is now complete, and we are gearing up for the year.

Follow Torah Intermedia to learn about upcoming tours, lectures and programs, as well as articles and reviews.

Last Tanach Tour Complete
Paying tribute to the “met sticker” tradition.. last one out of the museum today, Sunday, August 27


Thank you so much for an amazing tour of the MET with my children! You were so engaging with my children and managed to still fill the rest of the tour for us adults with lots of meaningful content! I will recommend you to anyone looking for a great tour guide of the MET and specifically a Jewish tour. You were great!!!

Rabbi Yochai “Yogi” Robkin
Director of outread of DATA at Plano, Texas
Tanach Highlights Tour on August 17
“Our extended family, ranging in age from 7 to 65, enjoyed a wonderful tour of the Met with Nachliel. He planned scavenger hunts, decryption games, and more to keep the younger crowd interested while engaging the adults with his vast knowledge. The tour brought the museum to life. I highly recommend it!”
J. Robkin, from Atlanta, GA
Tanach Highlights Family Tour, August 17

Robkin Family collage 1

MJE July 30 collage
Manhattan Jewish Experience, July 30

Thank you Nachliel providing us all a great understanding of the Assyrian and Babylonian empires and their connection to Tanach!

Rabbi Pinny Rosenthal
Manhattan Jewish Experience

Mechon Hadar, July 21

We so enjoyed having Nachliel as our guide at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Our group had been studying rabbinic materials about idolatry and Nachliel helped bring those issues to life through the Met’s collections. His comfort both with the ancient and classic sculpture we looked at as well as his fluency in Bible and rabbinic literature were terrific!

Rabbi Ethan Tucker
Rosh Yeshiva, Mechon Hadar
New York, NY
Tour took place on July 21

“Fascinating…Truly eye opening into the world we only hear about. The connection of Ancient Artifacts and the Tanach is explained and put into perspective, especially in this troubled time. This tour only reinforces our Historical connection to the Holy Land of Israel”

Jeff and Chery Klein from Monsey, NY. Participated July 23


This your is a great way to be introduced to the history of the Ancient Near East! It’s very comprehensive and spans a pretty good range of time. I also loved that it was grounded (corroborated) by passages of Tanakh. I loved seeing the intersection between the written record of history and Torah! Personally, I would have loved to spend more time on the text itself, but it’s hard to do it all in under two hours. I recommend this for anyone who’s interested in the A.N.E.!

Malka Rappaport from Crown Heights, NY. Participated Wednesday, July 12


Powerful presentation of the era of kings – Regional Kingdoms and Empires…the separation of Israel and Judea and eventual destruction of Jerusalem and the beginning of the Babylonian diaspora. Nachliel is a passionate guide and very informed and well traveled in order to present his material.

Notes were very well researched and presented. This tour was made even more powerful during the period of the three weeks between Tammuz and Tisha b’Av.

– Aliyana Wasserman, Rosanne Koenigson from Edison, NJ. Participated Sunday, July 16


“I’ve lived in New York City my entire life and have been through the Metropolitan Museum of Art…many times. Nachliel made me feel like I was touring these wings for the first time.”
Mrs. Susan Strassburger. Participated Sunday, June 18
“Nachliel is exceptionally knowledgeable and passionate about his twin loves – Torah and Archeology. He showed us the importance of contextualizing II Melakhim and Yirmiyahu in its Ancient Near Eastern setting…We moved at a rapid-fire pace…”
Ms. Sarah Robinson, Tanach Teacher at Kushner Hebrew Academy. Participated Sunday, June 18

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Some action from Sunday, June 18’s tour

Tanach Tour June 18

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Gear up for the summer with a

Tanach Tour at The Met!



Sunday afternoon, June 18

Group A:


Group B:


In Short…

Join us at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, as we go through the final chapters of the Kingdom of Israel and the Kingdom of Judah, during the First Temple period, until its destruction by Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon.

See fascinating artifacts that bring these civilizations to life, learn about the dilemmas we faced during these times, and understand their historic context.

  • Tour is approximately 1 hour and 45 minutes
  • Materials are provided, but bringing your Tanach is recommended
  • Tour is limited to 25-30 participants at a time


For your convenience, you may check the FAQ section, which includes information about arrival, parking, kosher food, as well as a link to the source sheet which I hand out at the Met.

Book your reservation now!

Call or text: 929-233-0950                     E-mail:

Tanach Met collage 2


Nachliel put together an interactive and informative program in the MET. It was a great experience to see firsthand some of the artifacts that our biblical ancestors saw, as presented to us in the Tanach. It was especially moving to stand under the Ishtar Gate, the same gate our ancestors entered through as they were exiled from Jerusalem to Babel during first temple period, circa 586 BC.

Jesse Salem, Brooklyn, NY 
Founder of Tanach Study

Rav Nachliel led my ninth grade Jewish History students on an eye – opening tour of the Metropolitan Museum of Art’s Assyrian, Egyptian, and Babylonian wings. It was important to me that my students gain the requisite background knowledge to more deeply understand the Second Temple Period…Rav Nachliel was professional and thorough and provided an enriching and worthwhile learning experience. I highly recommend a museum tour guided by Rav Nachliel.

Mrs. Frieda Cattan
Jewish History Teacher

Magen David Yeshivah Celia Esses High School, Brooklyn, NY 


Nachliel’s knowledge, energy and understanding of the art was thorough, colorful and rich. Through an intimate knowledge of history as well, he was able to vibrantly relate manifestations of ancient history to modern cultural events. A history lesson through art would have been satisfying enough, but Nachliel’s added touch of historical events as they relate to modern culture, and his willingness to respond to many questions, often tangential, brought the tour to unexpected heights

Ezra and Deborah Safdieh 

Brooklyn, NY


I went with Nachliel to the Metropolitan Museum of Art on several occasions. Nachliel is enthusiastic about Torah and archaeology, explaining Tanach and teachings of Chazal in a very engaging manner, passionately bringing Torah to life through the history and the archaeology that we explored together.Indeed, I too look forward to join him on future programs…

Dr. Nisan Hershkowitz, A president of the New York State Academy of General Dentistry, Brooklyn, NY

I really liked going to the MET with Nachliel. We saw lots of amazing things together. We should go again soon!

 Talia, age 4

Lions, Oh My!

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Lion and Bull in combat. Achaemenid, attributed to the reign of Artaxerxes III, 358-338 B.C. Credit: Boston MFA. Lent by the Oriental Institute, University of Chicago, LR 36.37. Photo: Author.

The combat of wild animals was a dominant and persistent theme throughout ancient Near Eastern art. The lion was a traditional symbol for the deities of war and destruction-and also, ironically, of love. The bull, noted for its sexuality and brute strength, was associated with the gods of storms, chaos, and fertility. In art, combat between such powerful animals may have symbolically represented the increasing and unresolved conflicts in nature. This fits into an overall background theme stretching to the earliest Mesopotamian cultures of order over chaos, the urbanization and civilization subduing the wild, a constant fight which the kings and gods had to lead. This particular composition was repeated over and over again at either end of the grand staircases at Persepolis. [Based on a plaque on display at Boston MFA]

The Lion King

Throughout the ancient world, lions were symbols of strength, power, ferocity, and most importantly – of kingship.

Biblical and Midrashic literature are fraught with mentions of lions in many different contexts. The lion has seven names in Hebrew, and its various aspects are used in prophecy and metaphor. Oftentimes, it is used to describe an enemy, the most prominent of which is Nebuchadnezzar II, king of Babylon.

This short article is not attempting to cover the length of the fascinating mentions and usages of the lion in Jewish literature. That has already been expertly done in the Torah Encyclopedia of the Animal Kingdom (Slifkin, 2015), and I highly recommend reading it. Rabbi Dr. Slifkin covers many fascinating insights about lions, both zoological and conceptual, which are beyond the scope of this article.

What I offer here are a few valuable tidbits for educational purposes, highlighting connections and providing food for thought. I link artifacts relating to the main antagonists of the late First Temple through Persian periods, with Biblical references tying them to lions. Finally, I will end with a treat from my hometown of Jerusalem.


Assyria – The Lion’s Den

What has become of that lion’s’ den, that pasture of great beasts, where lion and lion’s breed walked, and lion’s cub—with none to disturb them? [Where is] the lion that tore victims for his cubs and strangled for his lionesses, and filled his lairs with prey and his dens with mangled flesh? I am going to deal with you —declares the Lord of Hosts: I will burn down her chariots in smoke, and the sword shall devour your great beasts; I will stamp out your killings from the earth, and the sound of your messengers shall be heard no more. (Nahum 2:12-14).

            On the surface, this is an allegory, a metaphor to the great and mighty Assyrians who feared no one. The impact of Nahum’s prophecy would have been most impactful if it was said while Assyria was still at its height. According to the Seder Olam Rabba (20:2), Nahum prophesied during the reign of King Menashe, who ruled for 52 years (II Kings 21:1).

At this time, Assyria was indeed at the peak of its strength, both under Esarhaddon (ca. 681-669 BCE) and Ashurbanipal (ca. 668-631 BEC). Both of them were involved with Judah on some level, but mostly with Egypt.

A further description in Nahum 3:8-10 refers to the destruction of Thebes and exile of Egyptians (possibly the Nubians), which was done once by Esarhaddon and twice by Ashurbanipal. This would narrow down the time in which he prophesied. For more on Assyrian involvement in Egypt, see my article Taharqa, Sennacherib and Hezekiah – the Untold Story.

After the events of 701 BCE, Sennacherib returned to Assyria. Instead of making Judah a vassal, as he had intended (II Chr. 32:1-2), he merely taxed it heavily. You can see more about how that was documented both in Assyrian records and in the Bible in this video by Megalim Institute.

While Assyria did not annex Judah, its culture and idolatry were heavily influential upon it. This can very well explain the constant shift in the kingdom with relation to issues of idolatry and the purging thereof. This would also be the milieu in which Nahum, as well as other prophets, dealt with it.

In any event, it is clear that Nahum was speaking either in the time of Esarhaddon or Ashurbanipal. As for our perspective, it is archaeology which makes a connection between the prophecy of Nahum to the Assyrians per se; certainly, at the time his words were delivered the metaphor was very clearly associated with Assyrian Kings and their practices. Lion hunts were popular pastimes of Assyrian kings, and their portrayal through art was a way of emphasizing the king’s bravery and skill:

In ancient Assyria lion-hunting was considered the sport of kings; symbolic of the ruling monarch’s duty to protect and fight for his people, and to control and subdue the chaos of nature. The sculpted reliefs in Room 10a illustrate the sporting exploits of the last great Assyrian king, Ashurbanipal (668-631 BC) and were created for his palace at Nineveh (in modern-day northern Iraq).

The hunt scenes, full of tension and realism, rank among the finest achievements of Assyrian Art. They depict the release of the lions, the ensuing chase and subsequent killing [based on description from]


Ashurbanipal hunting lions, relief from Ashurbanipal’s North Palace, Nineveh (modern Kuyunjik), Iraq, ca. 645-635 BCE. Gypsum, 5′ 4″ high. Image credit: British Museum, London.

Be sure to check out many more such reliefs when you visit the British Museum, in room 10a. For your convenience, their reference is: ME 124781, ME 124850-ME 124870, ME 124874- ME 124878, ME 124883-ME 124887, ME 124921

Exile: The Lions of Babylon

Take refuge, do not delay! For I bring evil from the north, and great disaster. The lion has come up from his thicket: The destroyer of nations has set out, has departed from his place, to make your land a desolation; Your cities shall be ruined, Without inhabitants. (Jeremiah 4:6-7)

            Nebuchadnezzar II (605 – ca. 562 BCE). Arguably the most formidable and notorious of all Biblical “bad guys”. Midrash rates him as even more terrible than Sennacherib, and he is mentioned over 300 times in the Bible. While there are several portrayals of him during his rule, he is most famous for destroying the Temple in Jerusalem in 586 BCE – putting a stop to the rebellious Kingdom of Judah with one final blow. Jews around the world and throughout history have grown up hearing his name, as the destruction is lamented annually on the fast day of the Ninth of Av (Tisha b’Av).

The impact Nebuchadnezzar has left on the Jewish people is undeniable. Babylon was the first official exile of Israel as a sovereign nation into the diaspora.[1] Without a homeland and a Temple to center their lives around, Jews lamented the loss of Jerusalem by the Rivers of Babylon. Diaspora became a reality, and religion evolved to supplement the lack of a land and a Temple, and thus “Judaism” was born.

Getting back to the lions, it wasn’t over for the Jews in Babylon. Nebuchadnezzar held Jews in his court, gave them Babylonian names (Daniel 1:7), and even had a rather close relationship with Daniel. And to all of them – including those Jews who were marched into Babylon – the connection to lions would have been clear as day. This is because of Nebuchadnezzar’s building operations.

Digital rendering of the Ishtar Gate.

Imagine, seeing what the exiled Jews of Judah saw with their very own eyes. It can be very moving. When you see those lions, you are looking at the same bricks and images seen by Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael and Azariah. What impact did these lions have on them? What imagery did these lions bring up in their appreciation or fear of the works of Nebuchadnezzar?

When I take groups to the Met, we read “By the Rivers of Babylon” (Psalms 137) under these lions. It is a powerful image.

Nebuchadnezzar was a great builder, and much of the silver in his treasury was spent on rebuilding Babylon to luxurious and lofty new heights. Records of his industriousness include one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World: The Hanging Gardens of Babylon. So far, the garden has not been found, but nevertheless it is a subject for art and legend. However, before it was replaced by the Lighthouse of Alexandria, there was one more of his buildings on that list, and that is the Ishtar Gate. A gate of magnificent blue and other vibrant colors, it was decorated with glazed bricks with the images of 120 lions, dragons, and bulls, representing the gods Ishtar, Marduk and Adad, respectively.

Originally from the modern city of Al Hillah, about 55 miles south of Baghdad, this gate has been excavated between 1902-1914, and painstakingly reconstructed to its current state in the Pergamon Museum, where it is on display today. Several of the figures are in museums around the world. So far, I have seen two lions and a dragon in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, and one lion in the Boston MFA. There are a few more in museums around the world, including the Royal Ontario Museum, Canada (the video on the page is recommended) and the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. The former was actually excavated in Nebuchadnezzar’s throne room, which means that the Biblical characters mentioned above probably spent a lot of their time very close to it.


The Ishtar Gate today, in the Pergamon Museum, Berlin.


Another lion-related antagonist who is part of the Babylonian Exile, is Nebuzaradan. So terrible was he, that in comparison to Nebuchadnezzar, he is called a lion, while Nebuchadnezzar becomes a bear.

“He is a bear lying in wait for me” (Lamentations 3:10) – this refers to Nebuchadnezzar; “a lion in hiding” – this refers to Nebuzaradan (Eikha Rabba 3:4).

Lions and bears, oh my!

When contrasted with Nebuzaradan, Nebuchadnezzar is compared to a bear rather than a lion. The reason for this is that the lion is a more ferocious predator than the bear (Slifkin, pp. 86).

Nebuzaradan was the commander of Nebuchadnezzar’s guard, who personally oversaw the destruction of the Temple and the deportation of the Jews. The Talmud (Gittin 57b) goes into gruesome detail of how he butchered countless priests and school children, an act which was seen as revenge for the murder of the prophet Zechariah son of Jehoiada (II Chronicles 24:20-22). This event is also canonized in the lamentations of the destruction, recited on the Ninth of Av, annually.

Nebuzaradan, according to Midrash, is the Arioch who we meet in the book of Daniel (2:15, 24). The name Arioch is similar to the word for lion, Ari, and why is he called a lion?

Nebuzaradan is Arioch. And why is he called Arioch? Because he would roar over the captives like a lion (ari), until they reached the Euphrates. (Eikha Rabba 5:5)

Exile by the Mouth of the Lion

The imagery of lions is strongly associated, not only with Nebuchadnezzar and Babylon itself (e.g. Daniel 7:4), but with the state-of-being of exile, per se. Though the Kingdom of Israel has already been in exile for over a century, to the Kingdom of Judah – whom the Jews today are most likely descended from – Babylon was the first real encounter of exile. It was the first time that the “Jewish People” had to contemplate what it means to be “Jewish” without being a sovereign nation on their own land. Essentially, “Judaism” as a practice, religion, or identity, was born from the Babylonian Exile.

Israel ben Moses Najara (Yisrael Najara), a 16th century liturgical poet, preacher, Biblical commentator, kabbalist, and rabbi of Gaza, composed one of my favorite Sabbath songs – “Yah Ribon”. Written entirely in Aramaic, it incorporates and paraphrases several key verses and ideas from the book of Daniel. This includes Nebuchadnezzar’s dreams, and how Daniel addresses the King when presenting a solution to his dreams. The refrain “Yah Ribon Olam ve’Almaya, ant hu Malka, Melekh Malkhaya” [roughly translated “Oh God, Master of the World and the Universe, Thou Art the King, King of Kings”], is very similar to the way in which Mesopotamian kings are referred to, both in scripture and archaeologically.

All of this makes it very appropriate for the theme of the song which is the experience of Jews in Exile. A stanza describing the prayer for redemption of Jews from Exile, roughly translated, goes:

Oh God, with Whom resides Glory and Might /

Redeem Thy Flock from the Mouth of the Lion /

And Deliver Your people from amidst the Exile

Redemption “from the Mouth of the Lion” in Midrashic literature is seen as a measure-for-measure in terms of…lions. Oh, my!

There are many Midrashic analogies attributing the character of lions to Nebuchadnezzar, the Temple in Jerusalem, Judah, the fall of Babylon, God Himself, and the ultimate redemption from exile.[2] Perhaps my favorite Midrash is the following:

Judah corresponds to the kingdom of Babylon – both are symbolized by a lion.

This one is compared to a lion: “Judah is a young lion” (Gen. 49:9), and this one is compared to a lion: “The first was like a lion” (Dan. 7:4).

The kingdom of Babylon falls by the hand of Daniel, who comes from the tribe of Judah. (Bereishit Rabba 99:2)

“Babylon falls by the hand of Daniel” – this is referring to his interpretation of the Writing on the Wall (Dan. 5). While Daniel is from the tribe of Judah – who is compared to a Lion – he had a vision of Babylon as the head of a lion (Dan. 7:4). It is interesting that Daniel himself is iconic for his relationship to lions.

Briton Riviere, Daniel in the Lion’s Den, 1872. Credit: National Museum Liverpool, Walker Art Gallery.

The fifth chapter of Daniel tells the tale of Daniel being thrown into the lion’s den by king Darius the Mede. Parenthetically, this is a classic case of discrepancy between the Biblical record and the historic record. In the Bible, there is no mention of Nabonidus, who was the successor of Belshazzar. Instead, we hear about a Darius the Mede, who took over the kingdom at the age of sixty-two, and ruled for a single year (Dan. 5:30). Whether Darius the Mede is in fact Cyrus, or possibly the Median king Astyages, is unclear. Darius the Mede does not appear in any historical source other than the Bible and the Talmud. It may be that no artifacts or buildings carrying his name were left behind because of his short reign. (Landy, pp. 11)

Striding lion from the Ishtar gate. Credit: Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

Persia: Surrounded by Lions

In Midrashic analogy, the Persians are represented by the Bear (Slifkin, p. 112-4), based on Daniel’s visions (7:5).  However, the imagery of lions was quite prevalent in the Achaemenid Persian Empire. Several items with lions on them have been found with inscriptions connecting them to Darius, Cyrus, Xerxes, and Artaxerxes.

Perhaps the most complex and difficult issue in Biblical chronology is the organization and identification of the Persian kings in relation to archaeological discovery. Included in this, is the identification of King Achashverosh from the book of Esther. Several prominent historians have dealt with this question and it warrants an entire article of its own, thereby, way beyond the scope of this article.

The images shown in this section are for the purpose of exploration and to piqued the readers interest, and in this section I will be treating King Achashverosh, briefly, from a Talmudic and philosophical point of view. So why King Achashverosh? Because, according to the Talmud (Megillah 15b, below), he is compared to a lion by none other than Queen Esther:

My God, my God, why have You abandoned me; why so far from delivering me and from my anguished roaring?

Dogs surround me; a pack of evil ones closes in on me, like lions [they maul] my hands and feet.

Save my life from the sword, my precious life from the clutches of a dog. Deliver me from a lion’s mouth; from the horns of wild oxen rescue me. (Psalms 22:2, 17, 21-22)

“Deliver me from a lion’s mouth; from the horns of wild oxen rescue me” – Lion and Bull in combat. Achaemenid, attributed to the reign of Artaxerxes III, 358-338 B.C. Credit: Boston MFA. Lent by the Oriental Institute, University of Chicago, LR 36.37. Photo: Author.

This was the essential prayer of Queen Esther, before entering to plead to the king on behalf of her people:

Vessel terminating in the forepart of a fantastic leonine creature, Metropolitan Museum of Art. Photo credit: Author.

On the third day, Esther put on royal apparel and stood in the inner court of the king’s palace, facing the king’s palace, while the king was sitting on his royal throne in the throne room facing the entrance of the palace. (Esther 5:1)

Rabbi Levi said: Once she reached the chamber of the idols, which was in the inner court, the Divine Presence left her.

She immediately said: “My God, my God, why have You forsaken me?”…perhaps You have left me because in my prayers I called him a dog, as it is stated: “Deliver my soul from the sword; my only one from the hand of the dog”.

She at once retracted and called him in her prayers a lion, as it is stated in the following verse: “Save me from the lion’s mouth”.

Esther, it seemed, didn’t have much choice in the matter. Her life was intertwined in a play of power and politics which had potential to change the course of her people’s history, as well impact her place in her own family line (Esther 4:14). Esther was a descendant of King Saul (Megillah 13b), who lost his throne through refraining from the proper action to annihilate the Amalekite King Agag (I Samuel 15:9), ancestor of Haman the Agagite (Esther 3:1).

The turning point in the story of Esther comes from an understanding she attained with regard to how she treated the antagonists in her life. Calling the oppressor a dog is belittling and demeaning. Calling the oppressor a lion, acknowledges an appreciation of greatness, but also of the dynamic of her opportunity to grow through this. The latter cannot be achieved while belittling the challenge at hand, as difficult as it may be, and that is why she lost her “Divine Spirit” when she refused to acknowledge her oppressor. When she rose to the occasion, she indeed brought about a salvation and a change which inscribed her name on this historic event celebrated annually with the festival of Purim.

Lion Frieze from the Palace of Darius I, dating from circa 510 B.C. Found at Susa, in the Achaemenid empire. Credit: Louvre Museum, Paris

Lions of Judah and Judaism

Judah is a lion’s whelp; On prey, my son, have you grown. He crouches, lies down like a lion, Like the king of beasts—who dare rouse him? (Gen. 49:9)

            Walkiimageng out of Jerusalem’s Jaffa Gate towards City Hall, and throughout the city, you will see many representations of lions. Rooted in city tradition, the capital of Judah’s biblical inheritance, the modern emblem is indeed a lion. The new emblem as seen on the Jerusalem Municipality website celebrates fifty years to the city’s liberation in 1967. The older, classic emblem is still visible in many places throughout the city:








Several stone lions are parts of building facades, on rooftops, and engraved in Jerusalem stone. How many lions have you spotted in Jerusalem?

Winged lion in snow. Generali Building on Jaffa Street.

Well, just driving through the city between February through September 2003, you would have seen at least a dozen lions of different color and design, painted by young, experienced artists, and placed in public locations throughout the city. It was quite a sight to see. Some were just plain beautiful, while some had religious and even political themes. I recall one x-ray lion which had a heap of human bones in its belly, and an arrow pointing to them with the word “Daniel”. Below are pictures from the presentation in City Hall, before their relocation throughout the city:


Later on, they were auctioned off to private owners, yet several still remain in prominent public places, such as the Jerusalem Biblical Zoo, Misgav Ladach Street in the Jewish Quarter of the Old City at the top of the stairs going down to the Western Wall, and at the entrance to City Hall:


Sometime during 2009, I had the privilege of being hired to do maintenance work for two lions placed in the Jewish Quarter. For around five years I was their caretaker – I say caretaker and not painter, because there was much more to taking care of them than painting them. I covered some of that experience in my art blog. I must have heard hundreds of tour guides explaining – or asking me to explain – the significance of the lions to Jerusalem.

Besides being a hallmark of the city of Jerusalem, the lion is also popular in synagogue and Torah scroll ornamentation.[3] This is because the lion stands for more than the holy city, but also for various components in the city itself, from times of old.

Temple Service

“Ah, Ariel, Ariel, City where David camped! Add year to year, Let festivals come in their cycles! (Isaiah 29:1)

            As the prophet, Josiah laments and consoles Jerusalem for the upcoming oppression (possibly) by Sennacherib. He calls the city “Ariel”, which in Hebrew means “Lion of God”. The imagery of the lion is clearly associated with Jerusalem, which is in the portion of Judah. It is not only in metaphor however, but in architecture as well. This verse comes to hint at the structure of the main sanctuary in the Temple:

The Sanctuary was narrow in the back [the eastern side] and wide at the front [the eastern side], like a lion, as it says, “Ah, Ariel [lit. Lion of God] Ariel, the city where David camped.” (Isaiah 29:1) Just as a lion is narrow in his back and wide in front, so too was the Sanctuary narrow in the back and wide in the front. (Mishnah Middot 4:7)

There is a curious connection between the concept of service and lions. Even today, when there is no temple service, the Jewish tradition is that the three daily prayers correspond to the main offering times in the Temple services.[5] The classical Code of Jewish Law known as Shulchan Aruch, by Rabbi Joseph Caro, opens with the following words:[6]

One should strengthen himself like a lion to get up in the morning to serve his Creator, so that it is he who awakens the dawn.

This is based on the Mishnaic imagery of animal characteristics which should be emulated in our daily practice.

Yehudah ben Teimah says: Be brazen like the leopard, light like the eagle, swift like the deer, and mighty like the lion to do the Will of your Father Who is in Heaven. (Mishnah Avot 5:20)

But there is something deeper than simply emulating the might and strength of a lion, which can basically mean “early to bed, early to rise”. In fact, the essence of the inclination to invest in a relationship with the Creator is represented by the lion.

Quite surprisingly, this was learned through an attempt to eliminate the inclination for idolatry, during the Second Temple. According to the Talmud (Yoma 69b), the sages during the Second Temple realized that after all the trouble that idolatry caused during the First Temple, it was simply not worth the risk. Clearly metaphorical, the imagery used to describe the Inclination for Idolatry – and where it resided – were shocking:

In response to the indication of divine acceptance, they observed a fast for three days and three nights, and He delivered the Evil Inclination to them. A form of a fiery lion cub came forth from the chamber of the Holy of Holies.

Consider the implications: Idolatry played a central role in the moral disintegration of the Kingdom of Israel,[7] and the ultimate destruction of the Temple of Jerusalem. And its essence resided in the Holy of Holies – the Sanctum Sanctorum. What irony![8]

The sages were aware of this interdependence from the very start, and knew that eliminating that inclination came at a terrible price: The Service of the Creator around the Temple and the Altar, were predicated on a natural, evolutionary drive. It is no coincidence that some form of worship has been found in just about every culture in the world throughout history. This inclination was now, somehow, maimed. And that means that service became no longer intuitive and visceral, but rather intellectual. It is institutionalized.

In contrast, the drive and desire for service used to be so powerful, they had to be restrained.

Prayer is now an intellectual practice. And intellect removes us from experience, and presents a great challenge in an era where attention spans are significantly changing, due to incessant sensory stimulation. I am sure there is hardly a Jewish educator today who does not feel the challenges of engaging children in prayer. How does one encourage children who are so young and full of energy and compulsion to move, to engage in the intellectual, institutionalized side of Judaism?

…Food for thought (puns intended!).


I’ll finish with a treat.

Following the theme of decorating Jerusalem with lions, here is another example I was somewhat involved in.

For years, my mother has been an activist for the quality of life for residents of the Old City. There is an artist named Solomon Souza, who recently carried out a beautiful series of graffiti on shop doors throughout the Machane Yehuda market in Jerusalem. This was featured in several news articles, including a YouTube video which I may have shared on social media. My mother asked me for the link to the video, so she could find the artist and contact him about doing some more art in the old city. Below is a taste of the result:



[1] The Assyrian Exile of the Ten Tribes occurred in three installments around the year 722 BCE. There are qualitative differences between the exiles and how they are perceived today. However, that is beyond the scope of this article.

[2] For example, see Shemot Rabbah 23:6, Shemot Rabbah 29, Pesikta Rabbati 33, Midrash Pesikta deRav Kahana 13:15, Yalkut Midrashei Teiman. I credit Rabbi Slifkin for making it so easy to find all of them in his wonderful book:

[3] Slifkin, page 66-72.

[4] In Hebrew, the word for eating and consumption by fire are interchangeable. E.g. Leviticus 9:24, 10:2.

[5] Babylonian Talmud, Berachot 26b.

[6] Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chaim 1:1.

[7] II Kings 17:7-23.

[8] Parenthetically, it is curious that the people whom the Assyrians brought in order to repopulate Samaria, who did not know how to properly follow “the law of the God of the Land”, were attacked by lions (II Kings 17:24-27). These people converted (it surely was not called Judaism at the time), accepting the Law of the Land, and are sometimes referred to as “Converted by (fear of) Lions”, roughly translated (גרי אריות).


Slifkin, N. The Torah Encyclopedia of the Animal Kingdom. The Biblical Museum of Natural History / Maggid Books / OU Press (2015).

Landy, Y. Purim and the Persian Empire. Feldheim Publishers (2010).

Lachish: The Last Stand

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Gates of Lachish, by: Wilson44691 (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons

וְחֵיל מֶלֶךְ בָּבֶל נִלְחָמִים עַל יְרוּשָׁלַם וְעַל כָּל עָרֵי יְהוּדָה הַנּוֹתָרוֹת אֶל לָכִישׁ וְאֶל עֲזֵקָה כִּי הֵנָּה נִשְׁאֲרוּ בְּעָרֵי יְהוּדָה עָרֵי מִבְצָר

ירמיה לד, ז

“When the army of the king of Babylon was waging war against Jerusalem and against the remaining towns of Judah—against Lachish and Azekah, for they were the only fortified towns of Judah that were left.” (Jeremiah 34:7)


The last stand. The final moments before the destruction. It’s all over, it seems, and it is just a matter of time before Jerusalem will be destroyed by the Babylonian Empire. Lachish has fallen, and Azekah is no more.

Over one hundred years earlier, those fortified cities fell to the hands of the Assyrian Empire, under the rule of Sennacherib, who went on to lay siege on Jerusalem. In that was unsuccessful, but in his wake he left the kingdom of Judah devastated.

Let us not ignore Azekah: I did participate in The Lautenschläger Azekah Archaeological Expedition a few years ago, and that is another story for a different time. This article is about Lachish, the most famous city in Judah in Assyriology, and for good reason. It is the most well-documented city: It appears several times in Tanach, we have the reliefs describing its destruction in Sennacherib’s palace in Nineveh – testimony to how important it was. We have the Annals of Sennacherib, where he boasts about his conquest in Judah, the Lachish letters, describing the last days of Lachish before being destroyed by the Babylonians, which presumably allude to the destruction of Azekah (according to some experts). And of course – Lachish itself.

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Prof. Ussishkin, Mrs. Ussishkin and Prof. Garfinkel surveying the latest excavation

But why Lachish?

Exactly. After my first article about Tel es-Safi, I was asked, “Where does Lachish appear in Tanach?” As an educator, I feel that it is a failure that Lachish is not emphasized enough during studies to make a lasting impact. As early as the book of Joshua (10:3-33), we find Lachish to be an important city which took Joshua two days to conquer. While archaeologists may debate when and if this can be traced in the strata, its Biblical description is unique, for the conquering of all other cities are listed rather matter-of-factly.

Lachish shows up over and over again. A few more prominent examples are: II Kings (14:19, 18:17, 19:8), Jeremiah (34:7), Isaiah (36:2, 37:8), II Chronicles (11:9, 18:14, 25:27).

There is no doubt that when teaching Tanach, one cannot begin to give over the extent of the devastation that Sennacherib (710 BCE), and later Nebuchadnezzar (586 BCE), inflicted upon the Kingdom of Judah, without understanding the power of Lachish. It is somehow a little known fact among many Tanach teachers that Lachish was the second most important city after Jerusalem, a discovery which I myself just recently made. I would like to return the favor and share with educators who may read this some insights into how significant this city is.


Visit to Tel Lachish, July 17-19

My goal on this visit was to learn what an educator can do with the existing information about Lachish in the classroom. After being in Tel es-Safi a week before, I was all pumped up and ready to interview anyone I could, and absorb as much information as possible.

To be honest, I took a long time to begin writing this article, simply because I am so humbled by how much there it to say about this site. I was overwhelmed by how much work it would take to narrow it down to the essentials: geography, previous expeditions, main discoveries, current expedition. But I am really here as a passionate educator, not as a historian or an archaeologist, so I will leave the talking to such people, through the interview.

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Prof. David Ussishkin, surveying Tel Lachish

On my first day on the site I had the pleasure and privilege to meet Professor David Ussishkin (TAU), who came with his wife, Lily Singer-Avitz, for a private tour of the site. This was a very special tour because Professor Garfinkel was hosting Professor Ussishkin on his very own site. Ussishkin was the director of the previous Lachish expedition (1973-1994), which raised the bar for Israeli archaeology in technique, publication, and other aspects under his direction, and he is a “grand master” archaeologist. I was honored and humbled by the opportunity to join that very personal tour, even though the level of the conversation overwhelmed me. I received special permission to film the tour, and I met Robert, who volunteered to film it with his equipment. However, the content of this tour cannot be made public at this point, as it contains advance insights that have not yet been published.  I appreciate the trust of the excavation team in letting me record it, and when authorized, will release the transcription and the video.


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Prof. Garfinkel and Ussishkin

After three interviews at Tel es-Safi, it seems as though just one interview from Lachish is no big deal, yet its significance is not to be underestimated. An interview which, by the way, was only conducted a couple weeks later, in the YMCA in Jerusalem (image).

photo-on-7-29-16-at-8-46-amI met Professor Yossi Garfinkel (Hebrew University) in March 30th, at the Center for Jewish History, during the symposium called “In the Valley of David and Goliath: Digging up the Evidence of the United Monarchy”. There he invited me to join the dig, and agreed to be interviewed. He had fascinating things to say, and without further ado, I’m going to turn the mic to him to answer the question, so why Lachish, indeed?

Why did you choose to excavate Lachish?

In the last ten years or so, I’m focusing on the early history of Kingdom of Judah. According to the Biblical tradition, the kingdom existed for about four hundred years: The 10th century, the 9th century, the 8th century and the 7th century (BCE). And the last centuries are well known, but the first two centuries – the 10th and the 9th, are not very clear, and there are heavy debates about what happened in this time period. So I excavated Khirbet Qeiyafa, and now I’m excavating at Lachish to find Level IV and V, and I think that together, both sites will give us a better picture of this unknown period.

Now that you’ve dug in Lachish several times, what do you know different that you didn’t know before you started digging?

The core of the question is Level V – the first Iron Age settlement at Lachish.  

There are three basic debates:

  • If this level ever existed, or it is just a mistake of the archaeologists?
  • If it existed, was it a village or a fortified city?
  • What is the dating of this level?

Now, after four seasons at Lachish, I know that there is Level V, and I know that it is a fortified city, because we discovered a new city wall. And we also uncovered olive pits from this level, which we can send to radiocarbon dating. And once we have the results, we will know what is the exact dating of the fortified city at Lachish.

If it was fortified at about 1,000 BC, or 900 BC, or 800 BC, or maybe 700 BC. All of these ideas have been suggested in the past.


[Author:] When I arrived at the site, I was given a brief tour of the wall in question, though I was already digging in Lachish VI – the Canaanite level, in what is seemingly a temple of some sort. I recall the excitement and buzz around the finding of several things, including a scarab seal – a hallmark of Egyptian trade, and control of the area. I also found a few items, one of which was apparently very rare – a votive vessel which was probably used for worship.

In terms of this site, in general, both in terms of your expedition and previous expeditions, what has been found on the site that would be valuable to a teacher in the classroom? What ideas can be understood better, because of the expeditions?


Lachish Letter III: By NenyaAleks (Own work) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

I think that the best correlation between the site and the excavation on one side, and the biblical tradition on the other, are what we call Level II and Level III.

Level II has been destroyed by the Babylonians. And at Lachish we discovered the famous Lachish letters, about eighteen letters that describe the city and the people and also the fire signal of Lachish and Azekah.

And in Jeremiah (34:7) we also heard about Lachish and Azekah.

So we have a very interesting correlation between Lachish, the letters of Lachish and the Biblical tradition about the last days of the kingdom of Judah.

When Level III is taken into consideration, we know about the Sennacherib campaign (705-681 BCE). It’s mentioned in the Bible in three different books: In the book of II Kings (18:17), in the book of Isaiah (36:2), and in II Chronicles (18:14).

And then in Lachish we have level three, with the Assyrian siege ramp; the city has been destroyed. We can see how life looked like at the time of Hezekiah.

Assyrian Siege Ramps, by: Wilson44691 – Own work, CC By-SA 3.0,


How do the finds in Lachish shed light on the nature of that city, as opposed to what we know from the text itself?

Well, according to the Biblical tradition, Lachish was the second most important city in Judah.

King Amatzia, for example, there was a coup in Jerusalem, and he ran away to Lachish, and he was murdered in Lachish.

And when you excavate and you see the huge fortification of Lachish, the huge gates, the huge palace, you understand why he ran away to Lachish – because it was almost as important as Jerusalem.


[Author:] Here I will share a brief “aha” moment: Before I came to the dig, I looked up every mention of Lachish in Tanach. I was particularly intrigued by the story of King Amatzia (II Kings 14:19, II Chronicles 25:27), who escaped from Jerusalem and fled to Lachish – hoping that there he would not be captured. How incredible it was to see, on the way to Lachish, a settlement named Amatzia, in the regional council of Lachish. Only in Israel!

How would a teacher bring this to life in the classroom?

The teacher can read with the student the biblical text, then he can look at Assyrian documents: The Sennacherib Royal Inscriptions, and the famous reliefs, now in the British Museum, that describe Lachish, and then he can look at the actual archaeological finds which have been excavated by Professor David Ussishkin and published in numerous books, and also two popular books.


So altogether the student can see the city on the relief, read the text, see the archaeological data, and together you can understand how the Assyrians attacked the city, how the Judeans defended themselves, and so on and so forth.

Standing at the city gates, after a long day’s work


Megalim Institute video on the Lachish Reliefs:


Since I came to Lachish after digging in ancient Gath, the conversation came up about the connection between the two. And indeed, there is a very important connection between them:

What is the relationship between Ancient Gath – Tell es-Safi, and Tel Lachish?

The major question today is when the Kingdom of Judah spread from the hill country, from Jerusalem region into the lowland, and later into the Beersheba region. Some people believe it took place in the time of David and Solomon. Some people take into consideration the tradition of the Rechav’am fortifications (II Chronicles 11:5-10), which fortified Lachish.

And today, many people would like to say that Judah was able to spread into the lowland only after the site of Gath has been destroyed. And why?

Gath was a huge city. Almost 6-7 times bigger than Lachish. Very dominant center. So people are saying: Judah is a small kingdom. Lachish was a huge kingdom, so Judah could not move into the lowlands until Gath was destroyed. Which means that Gath was destroyed first, and then Judah came into the lowlands. This is one possibility  to understand the sequence.

But if Lachish was built…one hundred years earlier…then we have a different scenario: Judah came into the lowlands, took over land and villages and population. Gath became smaller and smaller, weaker and weaker, and then it was possible to destroy it.

But the question is, what is the cause and what is the effect?

Some people would like to say that the destruction of Gath enabled Judah to come in, but it is possible that while Judah came in, it was possible to destroy Gath. So we have two huge sites one next to the other, and we need to clear the chronological question, when was Lachish built. If Lachish was build before Gath was destroyed, or Lachish was fortified after Gath. This is today the chicken and egg question.

What is your message to teachers and students about coming to an archaeological dig?

I figure that anybody who has interest in the ancient world, or the biblical tradition, if he comes to an archaeological dig, even for a week, or two weeks or three weeks, he is inside the houses, with the pottery, the animal bones and all the artifacts that were left by our forefathers, and he will have a better understanding of how people lived in antiquity. And then he will also understand the biblical texts in the original setting.                                   


Assyrian cavalry. Assyrian, about 700-692 BC. From Nineveh, South-West Palace, Room XLV. WA 124777.

Lachish Relief, British Museum. Photograph by Mike Peel ( [CC BY-SA 4.0 (, via Wikimedia Commons