Archaeology

Babylon: Unearthing Impact

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Babylon: Myth and Reality (Nov 13, 2008-Mar 15, 2009) is an exhibition that changed my life – even though I had never seen it.

It was my father who visited this British Museum exhibition and brought home the catalogue (“the Babylon book”). Shortly after this, in 2010, I volunteered to teach the Book of Daniel to a class of thirty-seven 8th graders in Jerusalem, and where I was teaching as an undergraduate student-teacher. Using the resources I learned about through this book, I inspired these adolescents who were previously intimidated by the mostly-Aramaic book. This experience had made the book approachable to them, and the importance of archaeology for me – tangible.

At the end of the year, we celebrated with Nebuchadnezzar’s Ishtar Gates of Babylon – on a cake designed by yours truly.  

End-of-year celebration, after learning the Book of Daniel. Jerusalem, 2010

The next part of this story was completely unexpected. Since those student-teacher days, I’ve been teaching professionally in the US for six years, and often guiding tours near the two real Ishtar Gate lions on display at the Met. Academically I’ve gone back to school, completing an M.Ed in Jewish Education at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, and currently studying for an MA in Ancient Jewish History at Bernard Revel Graduate School (Yeshiva University). It is in this context that I had the distinct pleasure of seeing Dr. Michael Seymour, co-author of the Babylon book.

Dr. Seymour moderated a symposium for The World Between Empires Met exhibition (Mar 18-Jun 23, 2019). This spectacular exhibition shows the complexities of life, religion, commerce and identity in the region between Roman and Parthian Empires; the two superpowers of the late Second Temple period to the 3rd century CE.

This was only possible thanks to my professor at Revel, Steven Fine, inviting students to the symposium.

During that symposium, I was reminded of how my journey began 9 years ago. But it was only later, as I was guiding a private tour in the World Between Empires, that I recognized Dr. Seymour as he spoke to a group, and introduced myself. We kept in touch, met again when I was guiding students, and finally sat down for an early Friday morning coffee at the museum.

We sat and told lots of stories about shared interests. It was a fascinating conversation, and hopefully just the first of many.

Dr. Seymour is an assistant curator in the Met since 2011, when he began work on the exhibition Assyria to Iberia at the Dawn of the Classical Age (Sep 22, 2014-Jan 4, 2015). This was the very first exhibition I saw, on my very first Met visit.

I had brought along my copies of the Babylon and World Between Empires books, which are now autographed in a place of honor on my bookshelf.

Signing the Babylon Book

We never know who we will touch and how we will make an impact. Whether it’s something we say, an act of kindness that we do, or a book that we write.

The impact that Dr. Seymour had on my life in turn had an impact on my students’ learning, on my career path, and down the line – on countless other lives which were inspired and invigorated because of some old rocks someone dug out of the dirt in Ancient Babylon!  

With Dr. Seymour at the Met, holding my autographed Babylon book

Tasting and Torah – Rebirth of Shomron part 3 of 4

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Interview with Tzvi (Greg) Lauren – co-founder of Heart of Israel Wines

Social media links: Website / Facebook / Instagram / Twitter

This segment of the series of articles “Rebirth of Shomron” has been fermenting “in the barrel”, so to speak, for the last half year. In honor of Rosh Chodesh Adar – the new Hebrew month in which we celebrate Purim, specifically with wine, I would like to bring out this “vintage” article. But much has changed since…

I met Tzvi over a year ago in New Jersey. Being that I love Israeli wine, and he imports it, we instantly started thinking of ways we can integrate our entrepreneurial ideas to advance Torah and Wine. It was not until this past Saturday night (February 11, 2018), that our plans came to fruition.

Tasting and Torah was an intimate evening organized by Heart of Israel Wines, featuring a selection of wines from Shiloh Wines. Speakers included Tzvi and his partner Yehoshua, Amichai Lourie – winemaker for Shiloh Winery, Rabbi Yair Shachor -from the community of Ma’aleh Levona, and myself. We hope that this is the first of many such events.

 

 

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Talking Torah with Rabbi Yair Shachor and winemaker Amichai Lourie

You can click he for a link to the video of my talk at the Tasting and Torah with Shiloh Winery, and on here for a link to the entire program.

This interview took place in the summer, when Tzvi’s company was still called “West Bank Wines”. The old name itself was controversial, and has a story you will hear about in the interview. A few notes (from Tzvi himself) about the new name:

The company is now starting to import its own wines, and with their main customers being people in middle America, it made sense to have something simple, catchy, which still bears a connection to what it is about, and is not politically charged. Furthermore, after many requests from residents of Judea and Samaria, and promises to change the name, they finally owned up to their word and changed it.

Practically, Judea and Samaria is too long a name. They went for something universal and simple. Since heartofisraelwines.com would have also been way too long, the new top level domain “.wine” adds some panache to the new website, and here it is!

https://www.heartofisrael.wine/

Some background

Tzvi was born in Ukraine and grew up in the NYC metro area. With a background on Wall St., he made aliyah to Israel in 2010. The story of West Bank Wines started in 2015 with a chance encounter, while Tzvi was working for a an NGO called World Yisrael Beytenu. From there Tzvi began working on building an American brand for Lev Ha’olam, a company distributing various boutique goods from mom & pop producers in Judea & Samaria.

Tzvi eventually realized that the product he had a calling for was actually hiding in plain sight and pivoted the project to wine.

After looking up Israeli Wineries through Google MapsTzvi brought a list to his now business partner Yehoshua Werth in Monsey, NY, and they now regularly feature wines from Judea and Samaria, and you can follow their reviews and events on social media. He then set out to start visiting a few: Har BrachaShiloh, Hebron and Beit El wineries, all along Route 60.

Tune in for some stories about these valuable connections, and the world that it opened to him. These wineries are run by very special people, who are keenly aware of the place they live in, and the revival of Judea & Samaria through its booming wine industry. Every winery has a Biblical and Jewish history story linked with the location, and that story is the key to appreciating the wine. As Erez Ben Saadon of Tura Winery said, “When you love the Land, the Land loves you back”. A land that was mostly desolate for near two millennia becoming fruitful and productive again is a testament to the deep love of a people to their homeland.

The name “West Bank” Wines naturally had people raise their hackles, on both sides of the fence. Tzvi talks about how he arrived at this name as well as some of the reactions he has received, and the impact it had on his resolve to keep the name…which has now changed to Heart of Israel Wines.

Some fascinating research has been done into the grapes indigenous to the region, the history of how these grapes were forgotten, and how the grapes we now have in Israel, got there. That, and other areas of history, research and stories are discussed.

We hope you enjoy!

Links to content from the interview

Heart of Israel Wines: Website / Facebook / Instagram / Twitter

Articles and Videos:

  1. Dr. Shivi Drori, Ariel University, on the revival of 2,000 year old grapes: Here is a link to a short video on the science of reviving the grape, and here is the full lecture.
  2. Professor Ian McGonigle, Harvard University, and his article about Israeli Wine in Times of Israel.

Heart of Israel Wines reviews:

Three reviews by 2007 world #1 sommelier Andreas Larsson:

  1. Mount Hevron – Reserve Syrah 2009 – Judean Hills
  2. Psâgot – Single Vineyard 2013 – Benjamin Mountains
  3. Gvaot – Masada 2012 – Judean Hills

 

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How Lost are the Ten Tribes? Rebirth of Shomron 2/3

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Photo from http://www.tourshomron.org.il/ – Title reads: “The Shomron: The Land of Wine, Panoramas and Heritage”

“And in that day…the strayed who are in the land of Assyria…shall come and worship G-d on the holy mount, in Jerusalem (Isaiah 27:13)”

The mystery surrounding the vanishing of the Ten Tribes and their current whereabouts is nowhere near unraveled. Although recent studies into the topic have picked up the gauntlet, it is still shrouded in mystery.

Even the legends we have about their whereabouts are mysterious, or perhaps even mystical: Somewhere beyond the magical Sambation River [1], named for its impassable torrential currents which only settle on the Sabbath, effectually undermining any attempt to cross it during the week as the Lost Tribes beyond it are all Sabbath-observant. Thus, they are in effect cut off from the rest of civilization. Google Earth, anyone?

While I cannot comment on that tradition, I would like to revisit the story of the exile itself, and raise some questions and usable aspects for a conversation about the Ten Lost Tribes.

In my first article in this series, “Wine and Prophecy: The Rebirth of Shomron”, I discussed the basic biblical narrative. From passages of Assyrian and Babylonian chronologies, as well as verses in Jeremiah and in the Talmud, it appears that the story isn’t as simple as it seems.

In this article, I will explore three areas:

  1. Factoids from Assyrian and Babylonian records.
  2. Lost or amongst us?
  3. What hat did they wear? Implications towards religious practice.

 

Assyrian and Babylonian Records

First Waves of Assyria

The appearance of Assyria on the Biblical scene is very early on, and helps us relate to the names of important cities pertinent to excavations in Ancient Near Eastern archaeology: Babylon, Akkad (Akkadian), Nineveh, Kalah (Calah, Kalhu, etc), Uruk (Erekh), etc:

Kush also begot Nimrod, who was the first man of might on earth.

He was a mighty hunter by the grace of G-d; hence the saying, “Like Nimrod a mighty hunter by the grace of G-d.”

The mainstays of his kingdom were Babylon, Erech, Akkad, and Kalneh in the land of Shinar.

From that land Asshur went forth and built Nineveh, Rehoboth-ir, Kalah, and Resen between Nineveh and Kalah, that is the great city. (Gen 10:8-12)

A visit to any major museum containing Assyrian or Babylonian artifacts is bound to have references to some of these cities, which are the biblical setting of many stories.

First Mention of the Kings of Israel

The Assyrian Empire came on the scene before the Kingdom of Israel became subjugated to, and ultimately destroyed by, the Assyrian Empire in stages. For example, King Menahem, who ruled in Samaria a few years before the first exile, paid tribute to Tiglath Pileser III (II Kings 15:19-20), which appears on a royal stele in the Israel Museum. But this is from when the Assyrian Empire started expanding quickly and aggressively, of what is called the Neo-Assyrian Empire period.

In Assyrian record, earlier kings of Israel are mentioned paying tribute to the kings Ashurnasirpal II and Shalmaneser III, when Assyria was not in this expansion phase, but merely had dominance over some areas in Syria, which was short-lived (Van de Mieroop, M. p. 242-244).

In the Assyrian Kurkh Monolith, attributed to Ashurnasirpal II and Shalmaneser III, currently in the British Museum, Ahab King of Israel appears, and the House of Omri.

In the Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III, also in the British Museum, King Yehu prostrates before the king (image below), escorted by tribute bearers. Both these kings lived roughly a century before the Neo-Assyrian Empire came on the scene.

Yehu Shalmaneser III
Photo by: Steven G. Johnson (Own work), CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?curid=11326786

Phoenicia and the Rebellion of Israel

The Neo-Assyrian involvement with Israel and Judah came when, according to II Kings 16:5, Kings Rezin of Aram (Damascus) and Pekah of Israel formed a coalition against King Ahaz of Judah. Their coalition was intended to block Ahaz from joining the Assyrian Empire and to keep out its foreign influence, a move which had devastating consequences to both Aram and Israel.

Ahaz became vassal to Assyria (ibid, 7), and thus saved his skin from the attack of the former two kings. However, what is not mentioned in the Biblical account is that there was another king involved in this coalition (Cogan, M. p. 67-72): Hiram of Tyre. [2]

The Phoenician King, bearing a similar name to the earlier Hiram who assisted Solomon in the building of the Temple in Jerusalem (I Kings 5:15), was no newcomer on the scene. The kingdoms of Israel and Phoenicia were allies since back in Ahab’s time, who married Jezebel daughter of Ethbaal of Tyre (I Kings 12:31). Besides building a house of worship for the Phoenician god Baal (ibid), Ahab also built himself an ivory house (II Kings 22:39). Fragments of ivory have been excavated in Ahab’s capital in ancient Samaria, known as the “Samaria Ivories”.

Stag samaria ivories
A stag from the Samaria Ivories. Photo: Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY.

Back to our story – King Pekah of Israel is killed in a coup, and Hoshea assumed the throne (II Kings 15:30). According to Assyrian records, Hoshea was confirmed by Tiglath Pileser as king and vassal (Cogan M. p.72-76).

Hoshea rules Samaria for nine years (II Kings 17:1-6), while subjugated to Shalmaneser V. He is later caught sending an envoy to Egypt – a clear act of rebellion against Assyria – and is ultimately destroyed along with the deportation of the remainder of the Ten Tribes.

The surprise is that there was another king who takes credit for the capturing of Samaria. A king who is only mentioned once in the Bible, in relation to a campaign to Ashdod (Isaiah 20:1): Sargon II.

Sargon, who assumed the throne after Shalmaneser V, claims to have captured Samaria and been involved in the deportation process (Cogan p. 90-102). Even Babylonian chronicles attribute this capturing to him (Cogan, M. p. 209-211, 214). The subject of Sargon’s involvement in the region, and the way he records his campaign, is fascinating. For this article, as a segue into the next topic, I note just one point. While the initial campaign of Assyria Samaria, and its deportation, was initiated by Shalmaneser, it was clearly taking place over a prolonged period of time, in which at least one more king, if not several, were involved.

Lost or Amongst Us?

How long did it take to deport the Ten Tribes?

Mass deportation, while having existed earlier in Assyria, is a hallmark of Neo-Assyrian conquests. Different levels existed, from the deportation of specialist craftspeople to assist in various building projects, to deportation of entire regions – depending on its level of defiance (Van de Mieroop, M. p. 230-236).

This practice had several strategic benefits to the Assyrian Empire, while providing labour and people to build and inhabit its new cities. It reduced the opposition in the peripheral territories, as rebellious populations were resettled in foreign environments where they needed imperial protection against local hostility. Moreover, they would not escape, as they were unfamiliar with the country. Nor did they have the territorial imperative of fighting for their homeland. Nor did they have an organic group of their countrymen who would band together, as they were dispersed over wide areas, to either side of the Assyrian Empire’s homeland (according to Prof. Ran  Zadok of Tel Aviv U.).

Furthermore, the territories of deported people were selectively resettled with other groups when they were crucial for trade or for the production of goods. This means that deportation was done very strategically, based on the skills of the deportees, and the necessities of the empire. For example, an area best suited for agriculture would be settled by agrarian peoples, and not by nomads.

And lastly, the supervision and feeding of large numbers of people during a voyage of several months must have required enormous organization, surprisingly not recorded for us.

All of this points to an important fact: Deportation was a gradual, and expensive, bureaucratic and administrative process. The deportation of the Ten Tribes could not have been carried out all at once, and while the area was being repopulated with foreigners who will come to be known as the Samaritans (II Kings 17:24-34), it is highly likely that members of the Ten Tribes continued to inhabit their homeland for decades after the destruction.

As mentioned in my previous article, the Seder Olam attributes the deportation to Sennacherib.

The book of Ezra describes how, during the rebuilding of the Second Temple in Jerusalem, Samaritans requested to assist in its building, noting that they have been integral to this land from the time of Esarhaddon (Ezra 4:2) – the successor of Sennacherib; while other nations’ presence is attributed to the last of the mighty Assyrian Kings – Ashurbanipal (ibid. 10)

All of this may help us understand how Jeremiah could fathomably have identified members of the Ten Tribes, and brought some of them back.

Jeremiah (3:6-26) describes a mission in which the prophet was sent to the north to bring back the lost tribes.

“Go, make this proclamation toward the North, and say: Turn back, O Rebel Israel—declares G-d. I will not look on you in anger, for I am compassionate—declares G-d; I do not bear a grudge for all time.”

Rav Yehuda Landy suggests that this was possible during the reign of Josiah King of Judah [3], since the Assyrian Empire was on a decline (p. 111). But this all points to a curious discussion about the preservation of some of the tribes in the nick of time. [4]

Are the Ten Tribes completely lost?

Apparently not.

It is possible that those who remained suspended, awaiting deportation, had some interaction with, or influence from, Judea.

King Hezekiah (II Chro. ch. 30) sent invitations to Ephraim and Manasseh to join him in the Passover celebrations in Jerusalem, and some accepted the invitation, even staying in Judea.  

 

Tribal Jargon

The Talmud in Pesachim 4a [5] discusses how a person’s manner of speech may reveal an innate tribal association. (Writing this right after the public Torah reading of Vayechi, which describes the blessings of the various tribes, this seems quite timely.)

A certain man would regularly say whenever involved in conflict: Adjudicate my case [dunu dini]. The Sages said: Learn from it that he descends from the tribe of Dan, as it is written: “Dan will judge [ya-din] his people like one of the tribes of Israel” (Genesis 49:16).

The tribe of Dan was one of those exiled, as was Zebulun:

A certain man would regularly walk and say: The bushes on the seashore are cypresses, i.e., items located by the sea are more beautiful than those found in other places. They examined his lineage and found that he descends from the tribe of Zebulun, as it is written: “Zebulun shall dwell by the seashore” (Genesis 49:13).

And what of the Jews of Ethiopia (Beta Israel)? Or Bnei Menashe (Sons of Manasseh)?

All of these reveal some cracks in the notion that they are completely gone. But the mystery of the vanishing of the majority of their contingencies, still remains one of the big mysteries of Jewish History.

Walking hassid

What Hat did They Wear? Implications towards Religious Practice

If you were to go on an expedition to find the Lost Tribes, what would you look for? What traditions, rituals or stories would you expect to find, that might shed light on Jewish origins?

Wait, Jewish origins?

After 2,000 years, we have grown used to identifying ourselves as Jewsof Judah.

What would the other Ten Tribes think of that?

Remember that the Ten Tribes succeeded from the Kingdom of Judah, actively denouncing any association with the Kingdom of Judah (I Kings 12:16). In fact, a member of the Kingdom of Israel would have probably taken offense at being called “Jew”.

“Are you talking to me?”

“I’m not from Judahhow dare you? I’m from Zebulun / Dan / Naphtali / Gad / Asher…”

Two kingdoms, geographically separated, ideologically unassociated, and often at warfor over two centuries. We are talking about different entities. And speaking of religion, the Kingdom of Israel on the surface seems to be a largely secular-oriented kingdom [Disclaimer: The Talmud and Midrashic literature record many significant interactions, discussions and events from the Kings of Israel, and the populace of Northern Israel demonstrating how they were very much in dialogue with tradition and religious practice. I would not dare subtract from that, and hope to do it better justice in the future]. The foreign influences, political marriages—the subject of much prophetic rebuke—and far-reaching trade and conquests, distinguished Israel from the more traditional Judah, with the Temple of Solomon in its capital, Jerusalem.

As for the Temple: For a long period of time, the kingdom of Israel forbade the pilgrimage to the Temple, seeing it as a threat to its own stability. [6]

And what is Judaism, if not a ritualistic “survival kit” for Jews in the diaspora, maintaining its adherers’ association with their land and tradition while in exile, with no land nor sovereignty. Most of what we would call religion, be it standardized prayers, blessings or rituals, and even the codification of the Oral Law into the Mishna and Talmud, were created after the Assyrian Exile, primarily by people of Judah.

And to really drive the point home. The method of Assyrian deportation was carefully constructed to insure that repopulated groups do not congregate in any meaningful way that would enable rebellion. The exile itself was so aggressive and abrupt, what means of scholarship would have survived in any form, and with the time required, to enable it to contemplate a religion?

All of that considered, what percentage of the society was learned enough to maintain a strong identity?

The Babylonian Exile was largely tranquil, once Jews settled in Babylon. Jews had a lot of autonomy, and scholarship was maintained, with the wherewithal to contemplate this newfound existence without a land or a Temple.

So what would you find, if you were to identify a descendant of any of the Tribes?

It is not clear, but the likelihood of finding anything that would be recognizable to us is highly unlikely [7]. That is probably why the Return of the Ten Lost Tribes is the stuff of Messianic proportions.

The fate of the Ten Tribes is tragic, indeed. And in direct proportion, so is the rebuilding of their land.

This is why the rebuilding of Shomron today is so bewildering, marvelous and miraculous.

In the spirit of this past week’s public Torah reading, which describes the death of Rachel on the road, foreshadowing the exile of her children. But there is still home, and her children will indeed come back home again.

Thus said G-d: A cry is heard in Ramah— Wailing, bitter weeping— Rachel weeping for her children. She refuses to be comforted For her children, who are gone.

Thus said G-d: Restrain your voice from weeping, Your eyes from shedding tears; For there is a reward for your labor —declares G-d: They shall return from the enemy’s land.

And there is hope for your future —declares G-d: Your children shall return to their home. (Jeremiah 31:14-16)

vineyardsamaria
Photo: Vineyards in Samaria. Courtesy of West Bank Wines.

Endnotes:

[1] Cf. Yalkut Shimoni, Isaiah, 469.

[2] See also Cogan’s book Bound for Exile, Jerusalem: Carta 2013, which is a continuation of The Raging Torrent, and which focuses on the material about the exiles in their respective locations.

Note on the second edition of The Raging Torrent, for the connoisseur: There are significant differences between Cogan’s first and second editions, in terms of the sources used for Assyrian royal documents. I have asked the author about it. Prof. Cogan told me that Luckenbill’s two volume book included translations of the documents that were known in the beginning of the twentieth century. It was published in 1926-1927. However, more studies have emerged over the following decades and many more documents published, requiring revised translations. That is why he instead used Leichty for Esarhaddon, and more.

[3] Cf. Talmud Megillah 14b.

[4] The Mishnah in Sanhedrin (10:3) discusses the place of the Ten Tribes in the world to come, and the possibility of their return. Rashi points out that Jeremiah only brought back some of them.

[5] Translation taken from sefaria.org.

[6] Unfortunately, in stark contrast to the Olympics, contemporary with this period of time. The Olympics were panhellenistic rituals in honor of Zeus and Hera. Greek cities which were at war with each other, would lay down their arms, and compete for glory, through sports!

[7] I owe thanks to Rabbi Joey Dweck for this perspective.

Bibliography:

Cogan, M. The Raging Torrent, Historical Inscriptions from Assyria and Babylonia Relating to Ancient Israel. Second Updated & Expanded Edition. Carta, Jerusalem (2008).

Landy, Y.

לנדי, י. ואלה דברי ימי ירמיהו. תקופת ירמיהו הנביא: סקירה היסטורית, גיאוגרפית וארכיאולוגית

קולמוס הפצת ספרים, ירושלים (2016).י

Van de Mieroop, M. A History of the Ancient Near East ca. 3000-323 B.C. Second edition. Blackwell Publishing (2007).

Archaeology and Education – Tell es-Safi interview compilation

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With Middle School students, examining a Lamassu (winged bull) in the Assyrian Exhibit, Metropolitan Museum of Art

I have had the privilege to visit the Tell es-Safi excavation for two days this summer (July 12&14, 2016). Even better than the visit itself was the opportunity to interview a few archaeologists, each responsible for either this or other sites.

As a Jewish Educator, it really interested me to learn about their perspectives on the importance of archaeology in general, and specifically towards Biblical studies. What we  learn from archaeology? For the teachers among us – not limited to classroom teachers, but a parent, spouse or friend, planning a museum visit – what can we do differently, with this knowledge in hand? Even if we can’t actually be on the site, ourselves?

Before I get on with the interviews, I’d like to share a personal thought. I am developing Jewish Programs in Museums. For the high school level, this includes lessons in class, which culminate in a museum visit, with a focus on archaeological artifacts which relate to a Jewish idea, be it a biblical story (Assyria, Babylon, etc) or a concept (Art, Wisdom, Destruction, etc.). For adults, it means visiting a museum with text in hand.

When I tell people that I’m going to visit, say, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, they often respond in wonder “What is there to see in the Met, which has any Biblical significance?” Most of us just go straight to the overwhelming amount of art galleries, and perhaps walk through the Greek and Roman art, without contemplating the significance they might have to the encounter of Judaism with those cultures. Those statues are decorative, otherwise the hallway to the big pond with the coins would be boring. Perhaps if your kids are reading Percy Jackson (Rick Riordan’s five-part series, 2005-2009), there might be something closer to home about Greek art. It amazes me that people don’t realize the wealth the museum has to offer in terms of archaeology of the ancient world, that that there would be any Biblical significance there. I just found out, for example, that the Ancient Egyptian collection at the Met is the largest in the world, after Cairo (if what their plaque says is accurate). The few hours I’ve spent there were not enough to even scratch the surface, and I can’t wait to go again.

Temple of Dendur (ca. 15 BDC) at the Metropolitan Museum of Art

 

It is here that I wonder: What can we as parents, teachers and friends, share with those who would hear us? How can we show – not just what has been found – but what has been found out, how it impacts our understanding, and how it connects us to a broader scheme of things? After all, if we are not part of this grand story of unfolding history, then what is the point? Please join me, as we hear from three different archaeologists. I’ve decided against grouping their answers based on the questions, and am giving the stage to each one separately, so you may enjoy the entire interview. These articles will be followed up with the edited video footage, but that will have to be no earlier than October 2016. However, I will be providing some pictures, and if you get to the end of the article – an exciting youtube link awaits you. Let’s begin.

(Disclaimer: Some of the information about the professors is taken from Wikipedia, even if slightly modified)

 

Interview with Dr. Aren Maeir

Professor at Bar Ilan University

Director, The Tell es-Safi/Gath Archaeological Project (gath.wordpress.com)

Director, Minerva Center for the Relations between Israel and Aram in Biblical Times (aramisrael.org)

Co-editor, Israel Exploration Journal

In addition to Tell es-Safi, Professor Maeir has participated in, and directed, numerous archaeological excavations in Israel, including at the following sites: Jerusalem, Hazor, Yoqneam, Tell Qasile, Beth-Shean.

What is the value of archaeological excavations in general, and specifically for Biblical studies?

Archaeology, in general, is a science in which we study the past. It is not just a study of the past, I think, all people are interested in their roots. Old cultures, old people – it is important to understand where you come from, your past, who your grandparents were, etc. And archaeology allows us to extend this generations behind. And it helps us sort of understand the basic roots of who we are, what we meant to do, where we came from, etc.

What is nice about archaeology is that, not only do we know about the past, but we know about the past in a tangible manner.

Taboons, or ancient ovens, in Tell es-Safi

You get a tangible way of seeing the past. You can actually touch the objects from the past. I can see buildings people lived in thousands of years ago. I can pull out a pottery vessel someone used 3,000 years ago. So I think it’s a very, very powerful tool to study the past.

Unearthing a shard

In the context of Jewish heritage and Jewish studies, it provides a way to not only study texts and speak about our heritage in abstract manner, but to be out in the field, or see it on a webcam the actual remains. And it turns something from being theoretical to something dusty – and real. And these things are dusty here, because they are just uncovered, but not because they are old and forgotten. And I think that the power and experiential processes that people go through when they are discovering things from the past – and you can pick up shard – and this shard is from the time of Yeshayahu, and this shard is from the time of David haMelech, this one is from the time of Ezra and Nechemia, or the Maccabees, this gives you an experience that you’ll never forget. And I think that that’s the power to connect between the archaeological remains and the heritage.

 

 

 

 

And I think that the power and experiential processes that people go through when they are discovering things from the past […] gives you an experience that you’ll never   forget.

 

What has Tell es-Safi contributed to our understanding of the Biblical narrative?

First of all, it is a site which is identified as Gath, one of the five cities of the Philistines known from the Bible (Introduced in Joshua 13:3, and then several times throughout Judges and Samuel), and we find here substantial remains of the Philistines and their culture. And more specifically, we can talk about various historical events that are mentioned in the biblical texts, such as the conquest of Gath by Hazael which is mentioned in II Kings 12:18, and we can find the remains of the destruction of the site at the time. We know of the importance of Gath to the Philistines in the stories relating to David, and after David, and we can find the remains of a very, very impressive city at the time.  We hear the story of David who is escaping from Saul, and meeting Achish king of Gath – faking mad – and we excavate the gate of Gath. Even though it is not necessarily the gate in which that happened (David writing on the doors of the city – I Samuel 21:11-16) – nevertheless it gives us a nice idea of what a gate at that time looked like. Again, to a certain extent, it is as if we are taking the biblical story, and putting flesh on the bones. Whereas the biblical story is a brief description covered in many, many meanings. And when you can actually put the physical remains and connect them to it, it makes it much more understandable and much more vivid.

Based on what is found here, what can a teacher do differently in their classroom?

I think, first of all, I think the fact that you can say “Let’s read this chapter in Sefer Shmuel (Samuel), and then I’m going to show you these find about the people that we talk about – the Philistines – what is more vivid than that? And for kids, you can show a picture of a house – that’s a little boring – but if you shore the picture of a jar, or a big collection of pottery found on the destruction level, that fires their imagination.

What is your message to a student or teacher who are thinking about coming to a dig?

First of all, they’ll have the experience of their lifetime. They’ll have an experience that they’ll tell their children and their grandchildren about when they’re older. Second of all, it will allow you to have a direct way of connecting between the text that you read – whether it is the Tanach or the Mishnah – whatever you are dealing with, any ancient Jewish text – and the actual lives of the people who were involved in it. It is turning something – not into a text that we read and feel in our time – but we can see the lives of the people who wrote the text in front of us. And it turns it into something more tangible and more alive.

This is an issue, particularly, I think, for educators; this is the problem today of attention span. With a 3.5 second attention span that most young kids have, if you don’t provide something that catches their imagination, it is not the regular thing that we see – of you can move them out of the regular classroom, the regular pedagogical tools that you have, and suddenly pull out an object, or through the web bring them to an excavation, or actually bring to an excavation, it changes the whole way that they’ll look at the text. It changes their attention. It moves them, it takes them away from screens in many cases. And this is a tool that I think can turn – you can stay within textual studies, but still do something different, you know, do something which is combining textual studies with the physical aspect, whether the actual work, or the feeling that the text has also a physical representation. Because very often the texts are looked at as dusty pages from 2,000 years ago. What is its relevance to me today? So besides trying to explaining the relevance from an ideological point of view, you can show that these texts represent people and things and objects. We can come here and live the context!

 

Interview with Dr. Jill (Citron) Katz

Clinical Assistant Professor of Archaeology, Yeshiva University

Academic Advisor, Stern College for Women, Yeshiva University

Dr. Katz has excavated at several sites in Israel, including Ashkelon, Tel Haror/Gerar, and most recently Tell es-Safi/Gath where she currently serves as Area Supervisor for Area P. Her research interests focus on the nature of Israelite leadership during the time of the Judges (Iron I period) and on emergent urban life during the time of King David (Iron IIa).

What is the value of archaeological excavations in general, and specifically for Biblical studies.

I think that Archaeological studies are a good compliment to historical studies. In the sense that, it comes at you, the general approach is that this is reflecting the elite culture, maybe the male culture, but this is something that is written by the victors. And so, there’s whole swaps of people and of life that are not really reflected in history.

Historical studies […] this is reflecting the elite culture […] something that is written by the victors. And so, there’s whole swaps of people and of life that are not really reflected in history

So, you know, you can find out what the kings and queens were doing, and what the elite were doing, but you don’t necessarily know what the average person was doing.

So I think what the big advantage of archaeology is that, we have the opportunity to really reflect, and find the remains of almost everybody. Certainly we can excavate a palace, we can excavate a temple, but there is a lot of emphasis, particularly today, in excavating a farmstead, investigating just the daily life of regular people.

The number one find that we find in archaeological sites are ceramic remains, pots. Ceramics is something that everybody used, it was ubiquitous.

A king or queen – they would have fancy pots. But the average person still had to use pots for storing food, for preparing food, serving food, eating food. Everybody was using it.

So I think the best thing about archaeology is that it reflects sort of the general population as well as the elite population. And it reminds us that, you know, most of us are not necessarily in the elite. So you get a sense of what the majority of people were like.

And for biblical studies?

For Biblical studies, again, Tanach – it’s about the Jewish people. When you read Shmuel or Melachim (Kings), these are like the annals that were kept, recording the lives of the kings and of the important events in their reigns. I think that archaeology, again, provides a really nice compliment, in the sense that archaeology reminds us that the average people, they were farmers. They lives an agricultural lifestyle. When we excavate, we see that aspect of that. And we are reminded that it is not just wars, battles, palace intrigue and that type of thing. But, that we were able to really reconstruct daily life. We see the foods that they were eating, we see the houses that they were building, and get a great appreciation that for most of this early part of Jewish history, probably up until the middle ages, Jews were basically self-sufficient. The family was a self-sufficient unit. The family provided all of its clothing, all of its food. And this is what we can see on archaeological sites.

What has Tell es-Safi contributed to our understanding of the Biblical narrative?

Ok. So this site, is a wonderful site. I think the first thing that anybody coming to the site would notice, and I’m actually looking at the upper Tell right there, you have the lower tels spread below us, and Emek haElah (Elah valley) right to my left here, is you get the sense of the scale. This is a huge site in the ancient world, something on the order of 500 dunam (around 123 acres), which is probably around ten times the size of Jerusalem in the Iron Age I period (1150-1000 BCE, estimated time of King David and King Solomon). The philistines were formidable. Even though they were just in the southern coastal plain, they were a real power. They came and built large cities, cities that were fortified, cities that were, again, very self-sufficient, and would have dominated the region. So I think that working at Gat, and knowing that we are really at the beginning of the foothills, you get a sense of what the Israelites living in the hillside must have felt when they looks down from the hills to the foothills, and knew there was this huge city there, with a population that was well organized, and quite affluent, on a relative scale. You were dealing with a culture that was different, but in other ways it was similar.

It was different, because we know from here that they ate pork. They actually ate dog. We know from Tanach that they weren’t circumcised. But in other ways their lifestyles were very similar. They diet was very similar. They had a strong emphasis on wine. They were also producing olive oil to use for their light, you know, all the legumes they age, the wheat, the barley. These were things that were common to this whole area.

And the ceramic evidence, which at the beginning when the philistines first arrives was so strikingly different from what is being unearthed in the Israelite sites. Later on we see, one of the most interesting thing is that we are so used to the fact that wherever Jews are, they sort of assimilate to the local cultures. And here at Safi we have evidence that it is the Philistines, actually, who are assimilating into king of the larger Judahite culture, over time.

In what way?

They adopt the Judahite style of pottery. It becomes much less Philistine, much more Judahite. At the site, a number of years ago, we found some philistine writing, and we find that they are writing using the [Hebrew] aleph-bet. And, most likely, we assume that over time they even adopted circumcision. In Tanach, later on, they are not referred to as “the uncircumcised” in the same way that they are in earlier periods.

The horned altars that they use [symbol of Safi excavation] is something they are borrowing from Judah. Language, dress, all kinds of customs, are thing that become more Judahite.

There is mention in Shoftim (Judges) 1:18-19 that Judah gained control over Gaza, Ashkelon and Ekron and their area, but not the dwellers of the valley, for they had iron chariots.

Is there any evidence of that?

Dr. Maeir examining remains of the ancient iron workshops

That is actually a really timely question, because right behind where I am working, they have what they consider what of the earliest iron workshops in the land. And it is Philistine, and I definitely recommend you go and take a look.

 

I don’t know about the chariots, we don’t have any evidence of that. The one thing about iron is that because it rusts it is very rare for you to find ancient iron. Over time it just disintegrates. Even today, you find bullets from ‘48 and they are already mostly rusted. So you can imagine that form 3,000 years ago – it’s not going to be very much.

But what we do find are the remnants, the detritus, the leftovers from the iron forging process. The slags. The crucibles in which it was forged. That is taking place right behind me. That is taking place, they are expanding this. It is the earliest attestation in the Land for iron use. It seems that the philistines did have a little advancement on technology. We don’t know if they are the ones who invented it, or they got knowledge from where they came from. But it does seem that they had this technology before it spread to other parts of the Land of Israel.

 

Based on what is found here, what can a teacher do differently in their classroom?

Close up of a fragment, from the iron making process

I think that what archaeology, sort of the essence of it, is the material remains. We have two types, there are the portable remains, like ceramics and any kinds of small find that we can take away. And then we have the architectural remains. And so, I think that being able, you know, that’s where you can advance the teaching, I think. It is through using the material items, either as replicas, or showing pictures. Give the sense to people that in so many ways, their lives weren’t so different…history is a foreign country. You’re right, they did live different lives than we did today. But in some ways there is essential humanity. They still had to achieve their daily needs, and that is much of what their lives revolved around, just like today. It is about making sure there is enough food to eat, that there is a home, a shelter above them, clothing. And then you get a little sense of the personality when you find some kind of exotic item or something they made that is unique to them. So you see there is also this human need of creative expression, as well as to hold onto something that maybe makes you a little bit different.

 

But I think that what archaeology forces you to confront is that, again, in Tanach, this is an agrarian society. That is, most of the people are living as simple farmers, and in fact, that is the life that is reflected in the Mishnah and in the Talmud, and we kind of tend to forget that. We think of Judaism as always being urban, living in these cities, merchants, traders and involved in commercial activities. And the truth is that it leaves 1,500 hundred years, which, depending on how far back you want to go, is about half of our society. We were farmers. And that is what is reflected at these kinds of sites.

What is your message to a student or teacher who are thinking about coming to a dig?

I would say definitely come. It is something that you know, at this site, we have all ages. Everybody can participate. And the amazing thing about it is that we really do not know what we are going to find. And the only way to find what’s here, is to dig!

It is the only way to find out.

I think that just being able to touch the material, to get a sense of the earth that the people were living in, and to touch the material culture, to touch the vessels that they were using, to find a lamp that you know that somebody used to light their room so they could, maybe read by, or work by; to touch a grinding stone and say “this is what women were spending so many hours of their day doing, grinding their wheat, so that she can make the bread for her family”. I think it really brings you close to the actual life, the daily life, of the characters of Tanach.

 

Interview with Professor Dan Warner

Dan Warner is the Director for The Michael and Sara Moskau Institute of Archaeology and the Center for Archaeological Research, professor of Old Testament and Archaeology at New Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary, and is a co-director of the Tel Gezer Water System excavation and preservation project. He has also served various roles on other excavations at Tel Kabri, Megiddo, Tel El Farah, Gerar, and Ashkelon.

http://www.nobts.edu/ArchaeologyCenter/

http://www.nobtsarchaeology.blogspot.com/

What is the value of archaeological excavations in general, and specifically for Biblical studies?

In general, of course, archaeology is important to me. I’ve been doing it for the past thirty years, all over the State of Israel.

Basically, it is exploring the ancient world. It’s showing you the heritage, it’s giving you the culture, the settings, where you came from. So it offers a lot to the general public in relationship to understanding even where we are today. So it’s a very broad area, but at the same time it can be specific to one culture, one ethnic group. So it offers a lot of ideas of where we came from and even where we’re going. Very significant.

Specifically, since I’m in the area of Biblical studies, archaeology in the New Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary, it explains, illuminates, it helps us understand and comprehend the biblical text. So it puts a picture with the text. It draws an illustration…it fills in the gaps that the Bible sometimes doesn’t tell you. So you’re actually handling the physical remains, the material culture, you see the walls. For examples, like Joshua came into the Land of Israel, and they sent the spies in, and they came back saying there are giants in the land, and the cities were too well fortified. What does that word “fortified” mean?

Well, I’ve excavated two major fortifications: One at Ashkelon and one at Tel Gezer, and they are huge earthen ramparts. The one at Ashkelon was over 105 feet tall, the one in Gezer, over 100 feet tall, sloping, massive earthenworks. And they were all plastered white. So “fortification” – when you read that word you think of maybe a nice little wall–but these were massive structures in the time of Moses and Joshua.

That is just one illustration of what archaeology can do for you.

What has Tell es-Safi contributed to our understanding of the Biblical narrative?

Tel Gath has proven itself to be a gold mine of cultural elements that we’ve read about, and people have talked about. But now you actually get to pick them up and handle them in your hands. You get to see ceramics, you get to see the houses, you get to see the fortifications.

Tel Gath has proven itself to be a gold mine of cultural elements that we’ve read about, and people have talked about.

That just gives you a unique picture of who these Philistines were: What their expertise were, what their ideas were, their ideology. It’s a lot more than just reading the word ‘Philistine’. Now you’ve got a whole set of objects and material remains that you can associate with them.

Based on what is found here, what can a teacher do differently in their classroom?

What I always emphasize is a picture. If a picture is worth a thousand words, why aren’t teachers using more illustrations? So anything that you can illustrate with the biblical text, so they can get a visual image – they’ll never forget the visual image. They’ll forget the words, but the image will stay there. So if you can show them the wall, show them the pottery, show them the temples – wow.

But, the other key thing, something that I’m doing, is reconstructing them. If we can make a visual encyclopedia of the ancient world, we’re doing that with Tel Gezer, I’d like to do it with other sites and with Jerusalem, so that I student can walk inside, see the walls.

My company is called “The Virtual Bible Project”. I’ve already launched several different programs with a program called Logos – Bible Software. I’ve just finished Solomonic Temple, Gezer, and I’ve got a ton of projects coming up. A person can just go the the website and download a program.

 

What is your message to a student or teacher who are thinking about coming to a dig?

Cities are never located because it’s a nice place to live. In the bible, there are over 2,000 cities mentioned. All of them, when the people built the cities, they knew whythey were building them, where they were located, what the significance was. We just read “Gath”. But if you don’t see where it connects… it connects with the international trade route, which is right in front of their door. Same thing with Gezer, where I am. All these cities were located because they were near trade routes, they were obviously near water, but they had to have farming lands for farming, and defenses.

Cities are never located because it’s a nice place to live […] when the people built the cities, they knew  why they were building them,  where they were located,  what the significance was

Once you get the visual pictures – everybody thinks that Israel is nothing but a desert, nothing but a bunch of rocks. But then when you come here, and start looking at the sites, you say “Oh, now that makes sense!” Then you can go back to the Biblical texts and you can read about Gezer, Megiddo, all those places, and make a connection.

So the Land is what we call “The Fifth Gospel”. You can have the text, you can have the artifacts – but it’s the geography – that’s what makes it come alive.

So I’d encourage everybody. Get over here on one kind of trip. Specifically if you’re going to teach biblical studies – it’s a must! You’re losing one third of the context. Very important!

Tell es-Safi – Mightier than you Might have Thought

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Tel es-Safi National Park

Before I take you to the ancient Philistine city of Gath (Tell es-Safi, or תל צפית), I’d like to tell you how I got there. It all started in March 30 in New York, when I went to a symposium in the Center for Jewish History, called “In the Valley of David and Goliath: Digging up the Evidence of the United Monarchy”. If you haven’t yet been to – or heard about – Khirbet Quiayafa (Biblical Sha’arayim. See I Samuel 17:52) – then you should definitely look it up: http://qeiyafa.huji.ac.il/

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Aerial photo of Khirbet Qeiyafa. Picture from HUJI link above

And if you will be in Jerusalem anytime from September 22, 2016, you would be in for a special treat if you visit the Bible Lands Museum: http://www.blmj.org/en/

The museum is hosting the exhibition “In the Valley of David and Goliath”, showcasing the latest finds from that site. Some of these sites have changed the pages of history, and they all have exciting stories. Don’t miss it!

While getting to know different people who attended the events, I met Professor Jill Katz of Yeshiva University. It turns out that she was going to be part of an expedition to Tel es-Safi, and she invited me to the dig, if I will be in Israel. At the time I wasn’t sure I was going to make it, but as it turned out – I did!

Getting in touch ahead of time with Dr. Aren Maeir, the director of the expedition, I got permission to film some footage from the site, and to conduct several interviews with archaeologists. That itself would be an important task, but I was there to get down and dirty with uncovering history. Luckily, I was able to do both, and I am now going to share it with you!

But before I do, please make sure to check out Dr. Maeir’s blog, which was updated almost daily during the excavation and surely has lots of exciting footage:

https://gath.wordpress.com/

In this article, I will share some of my personal experiences at the dig, as well as some of the things I learned from the interviews I conducted on site. Hopefully soon, I plan to post the entire transcripts with videos and footage of, and relating to, the interviews.

Interviews I succeeded in recording:

  1. Dr. Aren Maeir – Bar Ilan University
  2. Professor Jill Katz – Yeshiva University
  3. Dr. Daniel Warner – Head of the Tel Gezer Excavations (check out www.telgezer.com and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dan_Warner)

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An altar uncovered in previous excavations of es-Safi (ca. 2011). The altar is important because it teaches about Philistine ritual, and their cultural relationship to the neighboring nations at the time. Picture from the article: http://www.haaretz.co.il/news/education/1.1181642

 

Day 1: Monday, July 12, 2016

It is said that the best way to learn a foreign language is through immersion. Well, I learned a lot of archaeological terminology through immersion. With abbreviations such as “EB”, “MB” and “LB” thrown around (Respectively: Early, Middle and Late Bronze Age), I was immersed in conversation about different excavations, comparative analyses of finds, and biblical references. I also met a whole lot of interesting people, who came to learn through the digging into the dust of the land.

I was working in “Area P”, while further up the Tel was “Area E”. I was immediately assigned a square to work in, learning quickly terms such as “banketim” (Hebrew for the ramps which outline the 5×5 Meter square areas into which a site is typically divided), usage of pickaxes and types of shovels, what is “topsoil” and what are “mud bricks”, uttered in a number of accents, from Hebrew and Russian to Korean.

It was a crowded day at the site. Besides myself and many other volunteers of all ages, there was a group of Yeshiva University students who joined for the day, as well as a group of Israeli soldiers. Apparently, their commanders decided it would be a good idea to spice it up a bit and join a dig for a couple days.

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Dr. Maeir, during the interview

“But why Tel es-Safi”, you ask? I’ll let Dr. Maeir answer that:

“…it is a site which is identified as Gath, one of the five cities of the Philistines known from the Bible (Introduced in Joshua 13:3, and then several times throughout Judges and Samuel), and we find here substantial remains of the Philistines and their culture. And more specifically, we can talk about various historical events that are mentioned in the biblical texts, such as the conquest of Gath by Hazael which is mentioned in II Kings 12:18, and we can find the remains of the destruction of the site at the time”

We spoke earlier about the battle of David against the giant Philistine, Goliath. Gath was his very own hometown!

“We know of the importance of Gath to the Philistines in the stories relating to David…and we can find the remains of a very, very impressive city at the time.

“We hear the story of David who is escaping from Saul, and meeting Achish king of Gath – faking [to be] mad – and we excavated the gate of Gath. Even though it is not necessarily that gate (which David wrote all over in his apparent madness)…it gives us a nice idea of what a gate at that time looked like.”

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Examining a clay shard I unearthed

I can say, personally, that when I had the historic context of where I was digging, it made the uncovering of pottery shards, jug handles and even a flint blade – a lot more exciting!

When I asked Professor Katz why we should come and dig, she said “…the amazing thing about it is that we really do not know what we are going to find. And the only way to find what’s here, is to dig! It is the only way to find out.”

We found out a lot about the site. I think that the most important lesson I took from this day is how impressive this city was. When we read about it in Tanach, it’s basically yet another nameless city, which had nameless villains who are long gone. But through this experience, I know now more about these people and their lifestyle, as well as the impact that this city might have had on my hillside-dwelling ancestors. In the words of Professor Katz:

“…this site, is a wonderful site. I think the first thing that anybody coming to the site would notice…is you get the sense of the scale. This is a huge site in the ancient world, something on the order of 500 dunam (around 123 acres), which is probably around ten times the size of Jerusalem in the Iron Age I period (1150-1000 BCE, estimated time of King David and King Solomon). The philistines were formidable. Even though they were just in the southern coastal plain, they were a real power. They came and built large cities, cities that were fortified, cities that…would have dominated the region. So I think that working at Gath, and knowing that we are really at the beginning of the foothills, you get a sense of what the Israelites living in the hillside must have felt when they looks down from the hills to the foothills, and knew there was this huge city there, with a population that was well organized, and quite affluent, on a relative scale”.

And I did say that there were surprises. One of those “small world” surprises: Uri Shalmon, my neighbor from Highland Park was digging there for the day, with Yeshiva University. Israel – it’s where these things happen!

 

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With Uri Shalmon

Day 2: Wednesday, July 14

I was infused, energized, motivated. I wanted to share this excitement with my friends. Convincing two of my friends, Josh and Mark, to join me, we made our way to another day at Safi. The way it goes is everyone starts setting up and digging before day break, around 5:45. Then, at 7:00 we have a coffee break. At 9:00 we have breakfast, and at 11:00 there is a “watermelon break” – exciting to us, but to those on the site every day for the past few weeks, the same drill gets rather boring. 12:00 is when we start wrapping up and getting on buses. Once everyone gets to the lodging (Kibbutz Revadim), there is the pottery wash activity, which I did not participate on this site. I did in the next site I visited, but that is for another article.

 

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Enjoying watermelon break with Josh and Mark

On this day I was assigned a different area. Lo and behold, two small world surprises: In the same spot that Josh, Mark and I were working, Josh found a neighbor from his street in his hometown of St. Louis, and I bumped into the older sister of my student, from New Jersey.

 

This day was a particularly intensive say, but not as crowded. This was basically the last day of digging, and everything had to be wrapped up, documented, and prepared for inspection. That is the main reason I was unable to interview Amit Dagan – he was extremely preoccupied with finishing up the dig with as much clarity as possible. It was truly inspiring to watch him hop from spot to spot, feeling the earth, examining, conversing about it.

There is a lot of information that was learned on this site, both about the site itself, and about the contributions of archaeology to our classrooms and text-based lessons. I would like to dedicate a separate article to the three interviews (and corresponding footage) that I recorded here, because there are so many interesting things that expand outward. For example, Dr. Dan Warner directs the dig in Tel Gezer, another biblical site, and is also working on innovative methods for bringing sites to life in the classroom. These things deserve their own spotlight.

To sum up the second day at Tel es-Safi, I think the most important lesson I learned is from the interview with Prof. Katz: Archaeology teaches us about the life of the common people, while history is written by the victor. In her own words:

“I think that Archaeological studies are a good compliment to historical studies. In the sense that…the general approach is that this is reflecting the elite culture, maybe the male culture, but this is something that is written by the victors. And so, there’s whole swaps of people and of life that are not really reflected in history.”

Indeed, when it comes to the Philistines, this is very true. But we know a lot about our interactions with them. What about the “seven nations” who settled the land? We are commanded to inherit the land and send those people away – or fight them. But why? Who are they? What is their story? What remains of them? These are all intriguing questions. Every morning in the prayers we review in brief the history of Abraham through David, talking about the covenant to Abraham who is given inheritance of the “Land of the Canaanites: The Hittites, the Amorites, the Perizzites, the Jebusites and the Girgashites (Geshurites?)” nations forgotten from the annals of history, and if not for our daily mention of them, who would remember them? What do we know about them, indeed?

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Professor Katz, during the interview

“…you can find out what the kings and queens were doing, and what the elite were doing, but you don’t necessarily know what the average person was doing.

So I think what the big advantage of archaeology is that we have the opportunity to…find the remains of almost everybody…there is a lot of emphasis, particularly today, in excavating a farmstead, investigating just the daily life of regular people.

The number one find that we find in archaeological sites are ceramic remains, pots. Ceramics is something that everybody used, it was ubiquitous.

A king or queen – they would have fancy pots. But the average person still had to use pots for storing food, for preparing food, serving food, eating food. Everybody was using it.

 

 

So I think the best thing about archaeology is that it reflects sort of the general population as well as the elite population. And it reminds us that, you know, most of us are not necessarily in the elite. So you get a sense of what the majority of people were like.”

A very humbling thought, indeed. Who would have thought that digging in the dust reminds us that, well, we should also be humble. As Abraham said:

Abraham spoke up, saying, “Here I venture to speak to my Lord, I who am but dust and ashes” (Genesis 18:27)

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Dr. Maeir and Dr. Dagan surveying the site at the end of the day

What are you doing in a place like this?

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Ancient Lachish on the 4th expedition, July 2016

“Where are you from?”

“I’m from Israel”

“Yeah, but before that”

“Like I said, I’m from Israel”

I was Born in Jerusalem, and raised in the Old City. A true “Rovah boy” (Rovah = jargon for the Jewish Quarter). There are many children with English speaking parents who grew up in the Rovah, so it is quite understandable that people suspect I’m not native Israeli. It also helped that I had a classmate in seventh-grade, from Chicago, who inspired me to work on my English. You’ll catch me in my spelling and gaps in cultural knowledge. Little did I know that would set me on a path that would lead me to the United States, almost fifteen years later.
So now, the conversation usually carries on as follows:

“Where do you live?”

“I live in Highland Park, NJ”

“Wait, you’re from the Rovah? What are you doing in a place like this?” 

Good question. A question I have to ask myself daily. On the days  I don’t, I wonder if I’ve been here too long. But you can’t take Jerusalem out of a Rovah boy. What am I doing in a place like this? In this article, I’d like to share with you some practical thoughts about that.

Here’s another point, which I’ll soon connect to the previous one. After three years of teaching in New York and New Jersey (with the annual visit home), I came to Israel for a month (July-August 2016) – probably the most intensive month I’ve spent in Israel in my whole life. But why should you care? Allow me to explain.

While in the US, I’ve taught in several different settings: From classes and activities in schools and summer camps to presentations and learning groups with communities and college students. At the heart of what I share there is always the deep love for where I grew up: The Rovah, Jerusalem the Land of Israel and even beyond (well, Jordan). Much of my instruction was based on the thrust of having come from Israel, but it was circumstance that lead me to relate those things. I’m an educator, and I teach mostly Tanach and Judaic Studies, so naturally I talk about what I know from home.

Middle School students at the Ancient Near East department in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, learning about Assyria.

 

That thought dawned on me as I contemplated a museum tour I guided in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Let me backtrack. Around November 2015, I prepared a tour for my Middle School, focusing on Assyria and Babylon. My own preparation was laborious, and the students also had to prepare via texts, videos and other media. Since the Tenth of Tevet was coming up (marking the day that Nebuchadnezzar lay siege on Jerusalem), I felt the need to give the students a basic understanding of who is Babylon. They are not merely a nameless villain on the pages of history. Babylon was a culture that changed the world, making a powerful impact on us that lasts until today, from the Babylonian Talmud to the names of the month, and of course – the destruction of the First Temple (586 BCE).

The students were also learning the book of Melachim (Kings), and it felt appropriate to include Assyria as well: Who were the Assyrians, what was their impact on us? Where are the Ten Tribes? And what happened to the Assyrians? Many of us have visited King Chizkiyahu’s (Ezekiah) water cistern, and even seen the defense wall he built – right under my parents’ house (see image below) – against Sennacherib. So who was he, and what was the big deal?

At first, the museum tour was meant to be an out-of-school experience and activity, nothing more. But then I realized how much of an impact it had on the students, and how this can me something much more. That is when I decided to go to Israel, and this time, to consciously invest in learning about the broader context in which Tanach took place.

Ancient Lachish. The second most important city in the Kingdom of Judah, after Jerusalem.

On my short visit, I participated in two archaeological expeditions (Tel Lachish, and Tel es-Safi or Ancient Gat), field-trip conventions for educators, I visit other important sites (City of David, Givati parking lot) and museum exhibits (‘Pharaoh in Canaan’, among others in the Israel Museum and Bible Lands Museum), and met with various experts and educators. On two of the sites, I interviewed archaeologists about how the relevance of what they do to our learning and understanding. So yes, this has a lot to do with us.

 

In the upcoming articles, I will hopefully share with you some of the experiences from those places, as well as the transcription and video of the interviews.

Professor Yossi Garfinkel, gaving coffee before an interview about Tel Lachish, at the YMCA, Jerusalem. All other interviews were on site.

Meanwhile, I am taking all of this, and am going back to the Metropolitan Museum of Art. But this time, I am going with a purpose. It is to make the most I can of “a place like this” – a place where we I can find things that will connect us to the text, enhance our understanding of the stories we’ve learned, and hopefully amplify our connection to the Land of Israel, and our Jewish Identity. I am developing a series of tours aimed at enhancing our understanding of things like the Seven Nations, Egypt, Assyria, Babylon, Persia, Greece and Rome. As an artist, I can’t ignore the “Museum of Art” part of “The Metropolitan”, and in the programs I’m developing I intend to make available an art program, as I did with my own Middle School.

In the Bible Lands Museum, Jerusalem, with Rabbi Yehuda Landy

Meanwhile, I wish you all a great summer, and I hope to see you one day in the Museum, and even better – in Jerusalem!